5 Women Centric Cancers: Gynec Check!

BY: Rajavarman Kittu, Clinical Bioinformatics Specialist, Premas Life Sciences Pvt Ltd., - 21 Sep-2022

The Cancer being common for both gender for almost all organs except the Gynecologic based. The Gynec cancer is consist of possibility of any of the 5 organs [Ovarian, Endometrial, cervical, vulval and vaginal]. Sadly, every Six minutes a woman is getting diagnosed with Gynecologic cancer.

Whispering NOT. Just speak Up! 

Sign and Symptoms of Gynecologic cancers: The Most common cancer is Cervical and Ovarian compare to other cancers in the Gynecologic cancer. Even though some of sign and symptoms are similar in between the 5 cancers of Gynecologic but there are specific symptoms relevant to individual cancers. These are the ways, the doctor’s suspect if there are chances of gynecologic cancer.

Risk Factors: There are several risk factors involved in Gynecologic cancers. The risk including with several aspects like Age, food habits, physical activity, family history, Sexual Habits and hygienic.   

•    Age: Women over 60 years of age of high risk of developing gynecologic cancer. As it is well established that after menopause vaginal bleeding abnormal. That is one of sign for suspect.
•    Food Habits: Not maintaining healthy diet is one of the risk factors to get gynecologic cancers. Therefore, women were always suggested to have healthy food. Avoid food which could cause obesity in order to reduce the risk.
•    Exercise: Not having any activity and not tracking the weight gain which is one the high-risk factors for getting gynecologic cancers. Try to get fit. 
•    Family History: Ovarian cancers main risk factor is family history. if Mother, Daughter, Sister or other relatives in the family has had ovarian cancer, then it is highly recommended to do Genetic test [BRCA1&2] to know the possibility of getting ovarian cancer.  
•    Sexual Habits and Hygiene: if not following proper sexual hygiene the possibility of infection like sexual transited disease occurs.

Diagnosis of Gynecologic cancer:

As said before gynecological cancer is collective cancer therefore like the sign and symptoms the diagnostics also varies between the cancers. The traditional screening methods like Biopsy, colonoscopy and Endoscopy carried out to confirm or classify them. Also imaging methods like CT, MRI, PET/CT and Ultrasound will helps to understand the morphology, size and severeness of tumor/cancer. At the same time, medical genomics perspective to do proper molecular diagnostics methods genetic counsellor should be involved to choose appropriate genetic testing needed. As far as diagnosis is concern, the gynecologic cancer be broadly divided like germline based [Hereditary] and Somatic based [Acquired]. The most common hereditary condition is Hereditary Breast and ovarian cancer [HBOC] and Lynch syndrome as there are specific panel like BRCA panel or Hereditary panels which helps us to understand the genetic alternations [SNP/INDELS/CNV/SV] Which are inherited from family. On the other hand, to identify the root cause of acquired cancers the cancer specific panels or broader targeted somatic panels or comprehensive genomics panel like TSO500 which can help to identify the genetic alterations biomarkers and immune-profiling in order to come up with appropriate treatments. 

Treatment options of gynecologic:

Based on the clinical condition and stages of the cervical cancer the appropriate treatment options from FDA approval drugs are provided by medical oncologist based on the molecular biology test reporting. The individual drugs like Alymsys (Bevacizumab), Avastin (Bevacizumab), Bevacizumab, Bleomycin Sulfate, Hycamtin (Topotecan Hydrochloride), Keytruda (Pembrolizumab), Mvasi (Bevacizumab), Pembrolizumab, Tisotumab Vedotin-tftv, Tivdak (Tisotumab Vedotin-tftv), Topotecan Hydrochloride and Zirabev (Bevacizumab) and drug combinations like carboplatin-taxol or gemcitabine-cisplatin cab be targeted based on the doctor’s recommendations. The HBOC scenario’s where ovarian cancer if the germline BRCA mutations/variants were observed, the FDA approved targeted therapy; PARP inhibitors can be used to treat the patients. The cervical and ovarian cancer are treatable through early detection and appropriate treatment options.

Live Healthy Lifestyle! Do annual health checkup regularly.

By: Rajavarman Kittu
Clinical Bioinformatics Specialist, 
Premas Lifesciences Pvt Ltd.
New Delhi, India

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